Search, the Request Object & OR Query Logic

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New mission: let's add a search box to this answers page. Head over to popularAnswers.html.twig. We don't actually need a row here... so I'm going to simplify my markup: move this <ul> to the bottom. Cool. Now we can give this div on top a d-flex class and also justify-content-between. This will let us have this <h1> on the left and a search form on the right.

Adding the Search Form

Add the form tag. This will submit right to this AnswerController route. So set the action to {{ path('app_popular_answers') }}. I'm going to not add a method="" attribute, because that defaults to GET, which is what you want for a search form.

Inside, add the search field: <input type="search">. I'll break this on multiple lines. Add name="q" - that q could be anything, but we'll read that from our controller - a class, a placeholder and an aria-label="" for accessibility since we don't have a real label for this field.

By the way, I'm not using the Symfony's form component because we haven't talked about it yet... but also because this form is so simple that it's overkill anyways.

Refresh now. Looks awesome! And if we fill in the box and hit enter... we come right back to this page, but now with ?q=bananas on the URL. The results don't change because we're not reading that query parameter in our code yet. So let's do that.

Symfony's Request Object

Head into AnswerController. Here's the plan: we're going to read that ?q= from the URL, pass that string into findMostPopular() as an argument, and then use that inside of the query to add a where answer.content LIKE that search term. So, a fuzzy search.

But inside of the controller, how can we read the ?q= from the URL in Symfony? Whenever you need to read anything from the request - like query parameters, post data, headers or cookies - you need Symfony's Request object: it holds all of these goodies.

And if you're in a controller, it's easy to get! Add a new argument type-hinted with Request - the one from HttpFoundation. You can call the argument anything, but I'll use $request to avoid being crazy.

Here's how this works, it's pretty simple: if you have an argument to your controller that's type-hinted with Symfony's Request class, Symfony will pass you the Request object. This class has a bunch of methods on it to get anything you need from the request. To fetch a query parameter, use $request->query->get() and then the name: q. If that query parameter isn't there, this will return null.

Over in the repository, add a new string $search argument... I'll let it be optional, in part, so that it accepts a null value. For the query, let's do it in pieces. Add $queryBuilder = the first part... and stop after the addSelect(). At the bottom return $queryBuilder and then the rest. I'll... fix my typo.

The reason we're splitting this into two pieces is that we only want to apply the search logic if a search term was actually passed. Splitting it lets us say if $search, then, $queryBuilder->andWhere() with answer.content - that's the field we're going to search inside of - LIKE :searchTerm. That searchTerm could be anything: it's just a placeholder that we fill in by saying ->setParameter('searchTerm', $search). Except... to be a fuzzy search, we need to put % on each side. I know, it looks funny, but that's exactly what we want.

Let's try it! Clear the ?q= from the URL first. Cool: we have our normal, non-filtered results. Copy a word from an answer to search for. And... got it! The top item became the second result... but this third result is definitely new. But let's search a different word to make it even more obvious. Yup! That's working.

Using the Request Object in Twig

Though... it's not very obvious that we're filtering because we're not rendering the search term in the search box. Open up popularAnswers.html.twig and add a value="". To render the current search term, we could read the query parameter in the controller and pass it into our template as a variable. But in this case, we can cheat because the request object is available in every template via app.request. So we can say app.request.query.get('q').

Now... much better.

Filtering Across a Join

But, our search could be smarter! Well, if we wanted to make our search really smart, we should probably use something like Elasticsearch. But to make our search a little bit cooler, let's also return results that match the question's text.

For example, clear out the search term... and let's search for something that's in the first question. Hit enter. That result disappears because we're not searching the question text yet.

Over in AnswerRepository, let's think. We want to query where answer.content LIKE :searchTerm or the question's text is LIKE :searchTerm.

The QueryBuilder does have an orWhere() method. Big win, right!

Actually... no! I never use that method. The reason is that it gets tricky to get the parentheses correct in a query when using orWhere(). I'll show you what I mean when we see the final query. The point is that if you need an OR in a WHERE statement, you should still use andWhere(). Yup, we can say: answer.content LIKE :searchTerm OR and then pass another expression. We want to search on the $question property of the Question entity. And since we joined over to the Question entity and aliased it to question, we can say question.question LIKE and use that same :searchTerm placeholder.

That's it! When we refresh now... yes! That first result showed back up! And check out the query for this page, it's pretty sweet.... and easier to see in the formatted version. Check out the WHERE clause. I totally forgot that we were already filtering WHERE status = approved. But because we put the OR statement inside of the andWhere(), Doctrine surrounded the entire fuzzy search part with parentheses. If we had used orWhere(), that wouldn't have happened... and our query logic would have been wrong: it would have allowed non-approved answers to be returned as long the search term matched the question text.

Ok! We've mastered the ManyToOne relationship, which is actually the same as the OneToMany relationship. We got two for one! That means that there are only two more relationships to learn about: OneToOne and ManyToMany. Except... that's not true: we really only have one more relationship to learn about. Next: we'll discover that there are really only two types of relationships, not four.

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What PHP libraries does this tutorial use?

// composer.json
{
    "require": {
        "php": "^7.4.1 || ^8.0.0",
        "ext-ctype": "*",
        "ext-iconv": "*",
        "babdev/pagerfanta-bundle": "^3.3", // v3.3.0
        "composer/package-versions-deprecated": "^1.11", // 1.11.99.3
        "doctrine/doctrine-bundle": "^2.1", // 2.4.2
        "doctrine/doctrine-migrations-bundle": "^3.0", // 3.1.1
        "doctrine/orm": "^2.7", // 2.9.5
        "knplabs/knp-markdown-bundle": "^1.8", // 1.9.0
        "knplabs/knp-time-bundle": "^1.11", // v1.16.1
        "pagerfanta/doctrine-orm-adapter": "^3.3", // v3.3.0
        "pagerfanta/twig": "^3.3", // v3.3.0
        "sensio/framework-extra-bundle": "^6.0", // v6.1.5
        "stof/doctrine-extensions-bundle": "^1.4", // v1.6.0
        "symfony/asset": "5.3.*", // v5.3.4
        "symfony/console": "5.3.*", // v5.3.7
        "symfony/dotenv": "5.3.*", // v5.3.7
        "symfony/flex": "^1.3.1", // v1.15.1
        "symfony/framework-bundle": "5.3.*", // v5.3.7
        "symfony/monolog-bundle": "^3.0", // v3.7.0
        "symfony/runtime": "5.3.*", // v5.3.4
        "symfony/stopwatch": "5.3.*", // v5.3.4
        "symfony/twig-bundle": "5.3.*", // v5.3.4
        "symfony/webpack-encore-bundle": "^1.7", // v1.12.0
        "symfony/yaml": "5.3.*", // v5.3.6
        "twig/extra-bundle": "^2.12|^3.0", // v3.3.1
        "twig/string-extra": "^3.3", // v3.3.1
        "twig/twig": "^2.12|^3.0" // v3.3.2
    },
    "require-dev": {
        "doctrine/doctrine-fixtures-bundle": "^3.3", // 3.4.0
        "symfony/debug-bundle": "5.3.*", // v5.3.4
        "symfony/maker-bundle": "^1.15", // v1.33.0
        "symfony/var-dumper": "5.3.*", // v5.3.7
        "symfony/web-profiler-bundle": "5.3.*", // v5.3.5
        "zenstruck/foundry": "^1.1" // v1.13.1
    }
}