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Implicit Grant Type with Google+

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With Facebook integration done, Brent can use it to brag about his major egg-collecting success on Facebook for all his farmer friends to see .... including farmer Scott.

Now he wants to go a step further and let people invite their Google+ connections to signup for a TopCluck account. To make it rural hipster, he wants to do this entirely on the frontend with JavaScript. The user will click a button to authorize their Google+ account, see a list of their connections, and select which ones to invite - all without any page reloads.

The Implicit Grant Type

So far we've seen 2 different grant types, or strategies for exchanging the access token. These were Client Credentials and Authorization Code. Unfortunately, neither works inside JavaScript. The problem is that both involve making a request to the OAuth server using your client secret. As the name suggests, that string is a secret. So, printing it inside an HTML page and using it in JavaScript would be a terrible idea.

Instead, we need to look at one more grant type called Implicit. It's a lot like Authorization Code, but simpler.

JavaScript OAuth with Google+

To integrate with Google+, let's start by finding their JavaScript Quick Start, which is a little example app. If we follow the Google+ Sign-In button, we can get some actual details on how Google+ sign in works.

Now that we know a lot about OAuth, the "Choosing a sign-in flow" is really interesting. This is a great example of how the OAuth grant types will look slightly different depending on the server.

Pure server-side flow

First, look at the Pure server-side flow. If you look closely, the steps are describing the authorization code grant type. The redirect is done via JavaScript, but with all the familiar parameters like scope, response_type and client_id. After the redirect, the server checks for a code query parameter and uses a Google PHP SDK to get an access token.

Hybrid server-side flow

Next, go back and look at the Hybrid server-side flow. This is another version of the authorization code grant type, which has 2 major differences.

First, instead of redirecting the user, we use a little Google+ JavaScript library and some markup. When the user clicks the sign in link, it doesn't redirect the user. Instead, it opens a popup, which asks the user to authorize your app.

The second big difference is how we get the authorization code. After the user authorizes our application, the popup closes. Instead of redirecting the user to a URL on our site, a JavaScript function is called and passed the code. We then send this via AJAX to a page on our server, which exchanges it for an access token.

This approach still involves the server, but the work of getting the code is delegated to JavaScript. In reality, it's just another version of the authorization code grant type.

Client-side Flow

Finally, let's look at the Client-side Flow, which is where everything happens in JavaScript. There are 3 variants of this type, but they're all basically the same. When we press the "Click me" demo button, we get a popup asking for authorization. And immediately after approving, some JavaScript on the page shows us the access_token and some other details. This happens completely without the server.

Creating the Google Application

Like everything, our first step is to create an application so that we have a client ID and client secret. Click to go to the Developers Console and create a new project.

Next, click APIs and auth and make sure the "Google+ API" is set to ON.

Finally, click "Credentials" on the left and click the "Create New Client ID" button. Keep "Web Application" selected and fill in your domain name. Since we won't be using the Authorization Code grant type and redirecting the user, we only really need to worry about the JavaScript origins. Google makes us fill these in for security purposes - a topic we'll cover later.

When we're finished, we have a brand new Client ID and secret. Keep these handy!

Including the JavaScript SDK

The implicit OAuth flow can be done without any tools, but Google makes our life a lot easier by giving us a JavaScript SDK. Copy the script into our layout:

{# views/base.twig #}

<script src=""></script>
<script src="{{ app.request.basePath }}/js/bootstrap.min.js"></script>

<script type="text/javascript">
    (function () {
        var po = document.createElement('script');
        po.type = 'text/javascript';
        po.async = true;
        po.src = '';
        var s = document.getElementsByTagName('script')[0];
        s.parentNode.insertBefore(po, s);

{# ... #}

This exposes a global gapi object we'll use in a second.

Initiate the Sign-in Flow

Let's add a "Connect with Google+" button on the homepage and attach a jQuery click event listener to it:

{# views/dashboard.twig #}

<!-- ... -->
<a href="#" class="btn btn-lg btn-info js-google-signin">Connect with Google+</a>
<!-- ... -->

{% block javascripts %}
    {{ parent() }}

        jQuery(document).ready(function() {
            $('.js-google-signin').on('click', function(e) {
                // prevent the click from going to #
    {# Put any JavaScript here #}
{% endblock %}

We can start the authentication process by using the signIn method of the gapi.authentication JavaScript object:

jQuery(document).ready(function() {
    $('.js-google-signin').on('click', function(e) {
        // prevent the click from going to #


When we try it, nothing happens. In fact, there's a JavaScript error:

cookiepolicy is a required field.  See
for more information.

What we're trying to do here is similar to the step in the Authorization Code grant type where we originally redirect the user to the OAuth server. There are details we need to send to Google+, like our client id and the scopes we want.

In fact, the gapi.auth object has nice documentation and the signIn method there shows us the common parameters we need:

// just the example copied from
function initiateSignIn() {
  var myParams = {
    'clientid' : '',
    'cookiepolicy' : 'single_host_origin',
    'callback' : 'mySignInCallback',
    'scope' : '',
    'requestvisibleactions' : ''
    // Additional parameters

Let's copy these into our JavaScript. Update the clientid but keep the scope as it will let us access the user's social graph. The requestvisibleactions parameter relates to posting activities - you can leave it, but we won't need to worry about it:

    jQuery(document).ready(function() {
        $('.js-google-signin').on('click', function(e) {
            // prevent the click from going to #

            var myParams = {
                'clientid': '',
                'cookiepolicy': 'single_host_origin',
                'callback': 'mySignInCallback',
                'scope': '',
                'requestvisibleactions': ''

The cookiepolicy tells the SDK to set cookie data that's only accessible by our host name. This is a necessary detail just to make sure the data being passed around can't be read by anyone else.

All of these parameters are explained nicely on the documentation page.

Let's try it again! Now we get the popup which asks us to authorize the app. And when we approve, we get a JavaScript error:

Callback function named "mySignInCallback" not found

That's actually great! Instead of redirecting the user back to a URL on our site, Google passes us the OAuth details by calling a JavaScript function. Calling the JavaScript function here serves the same purpose as a browser redirect: it hands off authorization data from the server to the client. This isn't special to the Implicit flow - the Hybrid server-side flow we looked at earlier is an example of an Authorization Code grant type that does this part in JavaScript as well.

Step 5 of the docs show us how the function might look. Let's create our mySignInCallback function and dump the auth information.

function mySignInCallback(authResult) {

Refresh and try it again! Awesome, we see it print out an object with an access_token. This is the big difference between the Implicit flow and the Authorization Code grant types. With Authorization Code, this step returns a code, which we then still need to exchange for an access token by making an API request. But with Implicit, the access token is given to us immediately.

Choosing Authorization Code versus Implicit

Remember that whether we're redirecting the user or using this popup method, we can choose to use the Authorization Code or Implicit grant type. In fact, the JavaScript object contains both the token and an authorization code. So we can either choose to use the token in JavaScript, or do a little more work to send the code to our server via AJAX and exchange that for a token.

Instead of sending us both, other OAuth servers let you choose between the code and the token.

Remember the response_type parameter we used with Coop? We set it to code, which is why we got back a code query parameter on the redirect. But we could also set it to token. And if we did, the redirect would have contained a token parameter instead of the code.

The response_type is how we tell the OAuth server which grant type we want to use. Even Facebook has a response_type parameter on its login URL, which has the same 2 values.

Authorization Code versus Implicit

So why would anyone choose Authorization Code over Implicit since it has an extra step? The big answer is security, which we'll talk about more in the next chapter. Another disadvantage, which is also related to security, is that the Implicit grant type can't give you a refresh token.