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Symfony2: Make my Controllers Services?

Symfony2: Make my Controllers Services?

From Christian:


I’d like to know what you think about the practice of building “controllers as a service” as suggested here:



Thanks! And keep up the great work!


This is a big religious topic in the Symfony2 community, and if you scan the comments in the links above, you’ll see why. In fact, it’s not something I usually talk about: it can be a hornet’s nest :). So here we go!

In a moment, we’re going to walk through an example and compare the approaches. But first, I’ll say that I don’t register my controllers as services, and the reasons behind this are simple:

1) Registering a controller as a service is more work. That’s not the worst things ever, but since it takes longer, the rewards need to outweigh this.

2) All of your logic should be pushed out into your service layer anyways. This is the age-old skinny controllers best-practice.

3) And now that your controllers are skinny, there’s no need to unit test them. Instead unit test the services being used by your controllers.

4) Services used by your controller are loaded lazily. This is not the case if you’ve registered your controllers as a service and inject only what you need. But in theory, as long as you keep your controllers focused, then what you’re injecting will need to be used for any action anyways.

With that viewpoint, the slight increase in setup time probably doesn’t make registering your controllers as services worth it. And when we’re teaching beginners, it would be yet another concept to need to know early-on.

But as you dive in deeper, the topic gets more complex and the advantages more fascinating, especially for seasoned developers that can register a service very quickly.

A Case for Services

The advantages to registering your controllers as services are more subtle but compelling!

Let’s build two controllers so we can compare each in detail.

Injecting the Container - without the Base Controller

The routing for the first looks normal:

    path: /controller/container
        _controller: QADayBundle:Container:index

Next, let’s look at the controller class itself:

// src/KnpU/QADayBundle/Controller/ContainerController.php
namespace KnpU\QADayBundle\Controller;

use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\RedirectResponse;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerInterface;
use Symfony\Component\DependencyInjection\ContainerAwareInterface;

class ContainerController implements ContainerAwareInterface
    private $container;

    public function setContainer(ContainerInterface $container = null)
        $this->container = $container;

    public function indexAction(Request $request)
        if ($request->isMethod('POST')) {
            // .. do some things

            $url = $this->container->get('router')->generate('homepage');
            return new RedirectResponse($url);

        return $this->container->get('templating')->renderResponse(
            array('type' => 'Injecting the container!')

In your Symfony2 projects, you’re probably used to inheriting Symfony2’s base Controller class. This gives you shortcut methods and makes sure that Symfony’s container is set on a container property. To see what’s really happening, I’ve chosen not to extend this class. Instead, by implementing ContainerAwareInterface, we can still make sure that Symfony calls setContainer and passes it to us. After that, we grab services directly from the container and use them. This is all exactly what happens behind-the-scenes in your controllers when you extend Symfony’s base Controller class.

Creating a Controller as a Service

Next, let’s create that same controller, except register it as a service and only inject what we need. First, the routing:

    path: /controller/service
        _controller: qa_day.controller.service:indexAction

Notice the _controller key looks different. We haven’t yet, but in a moment we’ll create a new service called qa_day.controller.service. Notice that we do include the Action suffix with the method name: when you refer to a controller as a service, none of the normal conventions are assumed (i.e. index => indexAction).

Next, the actual controller class:

namespace KnpU\QADayBundle\Controller;

use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Response;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\Request;
use Symfony\Component\HttpFoundation\RedirectResponse;
use Symfony\Bundle\FrameworkBundle\Templating\EngineInterface;
use Symfony\Component\Routing\Generator\UrlGeneratorInterface;

class ServiceController
    private $templating;

    private $router;

    public function __construct(EngineInterface $templating, UrlGeneratorInterface $router)
        $this->templating = $templating;
        $this->router = $router;

    public function indexAction(Request $request)
        if ($request->isMethod('POST')) {
            // .. do some things

            $url = $this->router->generate('homepage');
            return new RedirectResponse($url);

        return $this->templating->renderResponse(
            array('type' => 'Container as a service!')

The class is perfectly straightforward: we need the templating and router services, so we inject them. For extra-credit, I’ve type-hinted the interface for each of these. Now, instead of referencing the router through the container, we can just reference it directly. You can’t see it here, but my IDE is also giving me auto-completion on the templating and router objects - that’s one major advantage.


Knowing which interface to use for a specific service is not always easy. For example, how did I know to use EngineInterface for the templating service? If you’re not sure what to use, just look for the service in container:debug and use the actual class name - not interface - that is used for the service. To see if there’s an interface, open that class up and check for it. This isn’t a science, but it’s a good path to learn more about the interfaces that are actually behind things.

Finally, we have to do the extra step: defining the controller as a service:

# src/KnpU/QADayBundle/Resources/config/services.yml
        class: KnpU\QADayBundle\Controller\ServiceController
        arguments: ["@templating", "@router"]

This is a totally normal and underwhelming service, but it completes the equation. The qa_day.controller.service:indexAction value used for the _controller key of our route tells Symfony to grab this service and then execute indexAction.


Make sure this services.yml file is being imported, either by using an imports key in app/config/config.yml or via a Dependency Injection Extension class (see Episode 3 for more on this).

Comparing the two approaches: A case for Services

Since we’ve already talked about why you might not register a controller as as service, let’s explore the advantages of using services. Many of these are summarized from Lukas’ blog and comments:

1) Since you’re not injecting the whole container, this is an opportunity to document what your controller does and doesn’t do. When the controller is a service, it’s obvious at a glance that it generates URLs and renders templates. We also know that it doesn’t talk to the database, send emails, or do anything else.

To make this even cooler, Lukas points out that if you use the JMSDebugginBundle, then you can use the profiler tool to get a clear vision of what parts of your code - including dependencies - make use of a particular service [screenshot]. That’s quite powerful.

2) Injecting specific services gives you auto-completion and clarity on exactly what types of objects you have. When you reference the services through the container, you don’t really know what type of object you’ll get out. I commonly work around this by creating a private getter function which tells my IDE what to expect:

 * @return \Symfony\Component\Routing\Generator\UrlGeneratorInterface
private function getRouter()
    return $this->container->get('router');

Still, if we gain some time by not registering our controller as a service, it’s fair to say that we lose some time doing things like this. It’s also technically possible that someone in our code changes the router to return something that does not implement UrlGeneratorInterface. In the service controller, PHP would throw a very clear error if this ever happened. In the container controller, the error would be less clear.

3) How much should your controller do? When you inject the entire container, you could potentially have controllers that control many pages that do many different things. As Kris points out, this is much harder if your controller is a service, since eventually you’ll be injecting 100 different dependencies. This is a natural way to make sure controllers stay focused.

To Service or not Service?

Since not taking a side is lame, I’ll pick my winner. But the true answer is that the best approach depends on who you are and your project.

For most people, don’t register your controllers as services. It’s simpler, faster to develop, and avoids non-lazily-loaded service concerns.

So who should register controllers as services? If your team is very comfortable with service-oriented-architecture and your project is quite large, where it’s a challenge to keep track of what pieces affect other pieces, then it starts to make more sense. Like with a lot of things in technology, by choosing this path you’re asking to handle more complexity but understand that the advantageous for you outweigh that concern.

Phew, ok, have fun!

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Default user avatar Tomáš Votruba | posted 4 years ago

Do you want to try constructor autowiring in controllers with no pain?
Yes, since Symfony 2.8+ you can: www.tomasvotruba.cz/blog/20...

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