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02.

Asset Mapper

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Okay, so how are we going to bring CSS and JavaScript into our app? Are we going to add a build system like Vite or Webpack? Heck no! That's one of the fun things about all of this! We're going to create something amazing with zero build system. To do that, let's install a new Symfony component called AssetMapper.

Installing AssetMapper

Spin over to our terminal and run:

composer require symfony/asset-mapper

This is the new alternative to Webpack Encore. It can do pretty much everything that Encore can do and more... but it's way simpler. You should definitely use it on new projects.

When I run:

git status

We see that its Flex recipe made a number of changes. For example, .gitignore is ignoring a public/assets/ directory and assets/vendor/:

16 lines | .gitignore
// ... lines 1 - 11
###> symfony/asset-mapper ###
/public/assets/
/assets/vendor
###

We'll talk more about those later. But on production, this is where your assets will be written to and, when we install third-party JavaScript libraries, they'll live in that vendor/ directory.

It also updated base.html.twig and added an importmap.php file. But put those on the back burner for now: we'll talk about them tomorrow.

The "Mapped Paths"

For today's adventure, pretend that, when we installed this, all it gave us was a new asset_mapper.yaml file and an assets/ directory. Let's go check out that config file: config/packages/asset_mapper.yaml:

framework:
asset_mapper:
# The paths to make available to the asset mapper.
paths:
- assets/

The idea behind AssetMapper couldn't be simpler: you define paths - like the assets/ directory - and AssetMapper makes every file inside available publicly... as if they lived in the public/ directory.

Referencing an Asset File

Let's see it in action you. If you downloaded the course code, you should have a tutorial/ directory, which I added so we can copy a few things out of it. Copy logo.png. Inside assets/, we can make this look however we want. So let's create a new directory called images/ and paste that in.

Since this new files lives inside the assets/ directory, we should be able to reference it publicly. Let's do that in our base layout: templates/base.html.twig. Anywhere, say <img src="">, {{ and then use the normal asset() function. For the argument, pass the path relative to the assets/ directory. This is called the logical path: images/logo.png:

21 lines | templates/base.html.twig
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
// ... lines 3 - 14
<body>
<img src="{{ asset('images/logo.png') }}" alt="Space Inviters Logo" />
// ... lines 17 - 18
</body>
</html>

Before we try this, an easy way to see every asset that's available is via:

php bin/console debug:asset

Very simply: this looks through all of your mapped paths - just assets/ for us - finds every file then lists them with their logical path. So I can be lazy and copy that, paste it here.... and done.

Now, when we try this, it doesn't work! The asset() function is still its own component, so let's get that installed:

composer require symfony/asset

And now.... cool logo!

Instant Asset Versioning

To see the really neat thing, inspect the image and look at the filename. It's /assets/images/logo- and then this long hash. This hash comes from the file's contents. If we updated logo.png, it would automatically generate a new hash. And that is super important for two, related, reasons. First, because when we deploy, the new filename will bust the browser cache for our users so that they see the new file immediately. And second, because of this, we can configure our production web server to serve all the assets with long-lived Expiration headers. That maximizes that caching & performance.

Serving Assets in Dev vs Prod

Now in the dev environment, there is no physical file with this filename. Instead, the request for this asset is processed through Symfony and intercepted by a core listener. That listener looks at the URL, finds the matching logo.png inside the assets/images/ directory and returns it.

But on production, that's not fast enough. So, when you deploy, you'll run:

php bin/console asset-map:compile

Very simply: this writes all the files into the public/assets/ directory. Look: in public/assets/, we now have real, physical files! So when I go over and refresh, this file isn't being processed by Symfony, it's loading one of those real files.

Now, if you ever run this command locally, make sure to delete that directory after... so it stops using the compiled versions:

rm -rf public/assets/

Wow! Day 2 is already done! We now have a way to serve images, CSS or any file publicly with automatic file versioning. The second part of AssetMapper is all about JavaScript modules. And that's tomorrow's topic.