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Registering & Autoloading a Custom Matcher

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Inline matchers are easy! I love that! But you can't reuse them across multiple spec files - that's a bummer. Fortunately, phpspec is awesome and so - of course - it does have a way to create a matcher that can be used anywhere. And... what's even better is that there are a lot of great examples to learn from.

And here's one: go to - I... probably butchered that username - sorry! Anyways, this library is cool: it's just a big collection of custom matchers! Well, technically it's a phpspec extension, which means it's a "plugin" for phpspec.

Unfortunately, this library does not work with the latest version of phpspec at this time. But... who cares!? It is still an awesome source of inspiration for writing your own custom matchers. Each of these classes represents one matcher.

Describing a Potential Bug

Here's our next goal: our scientists are starting to grow dinosaurs for the park, but have reported a possible bug in the Dinosaur class! No problem! When you have a bug, the best thing to do is write a test for it: to describe the correct behavior so we can make sure our class has that.

In this case, someone reported that, when a dinosaur is created with a length of 15, sometimes... it shrinks! We've talked to our scientists and they say that some shrinking is ok, but a dinosaur should definitely not shrink below a length of 12. Wow, it turns out that growing a dinosaur is complex!

Let's translate this expected behavior into a new example: function it_should_not_shrink(). Set the length of the dinosaur to 15 - and notice that we do get auto-completion now that the setLength() method exists.

Then say, $this->getlength()... but... hmm. In this pretend example, the dinosaur is allowed to shrink some but not below 12. To reflect that, let's say: ->shouldBeGreaterThan(12)

57 lines | spec/Entity/DinosaurSpec.php
// ... lines 1 - 9
class DinosaurSpec extends ObjectBehavior
// ... lines 12 - 49
function it_should_not_shrink()

As you probably saw, that is not a real matcher. So, the tests should fail. Try them:

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

They... pass? Hmm... ah! A typo! And this proves that each example must start with it_ or its_. Try phpspec again:

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

There is the failure we expected.

Creating our Matcher Class

We know that we could create an inline matcher. But... I kinda want to be able to re-use this in other spec classes. To do that, we can create a matcher class. In the spec/ directory, create a Matcher directory and then a new class: BeGreaterMatcher... though this class could live anywhere. The namespace should be spec then the directory path. So spec\Matcher.

9 lines | spec/Matcher/BeGreaterMatcher.php
// ... lines 1 - 2
namespace spec\Matcher;
class BeGreaterMatcher

But, let's keep this class empty for now: I just want to make sure that phpspec can see our new matcher. How? Via its config! Open phpspec.yml, add a matchers: section and then, very simply, list your matcher: - spec\Matcher\BeGreaterMatcher.

8 lines | phpspec.yml
// ... lines 1 - 5
- spec\Matcher\BeGreaterMatcher

That's it! It won't fully work yet of course... but let's see what happens. Run phpspec:

./vendor/bin/phpspec run


Custom matcher spec\Matcher\BeGreaterMatcher does not exist.

This is basically a "class not found" error. Copy the namespace. Yeah... that looks correct... I don't see any typos. So... what's the problem? Autoloading!

Autoloading the phpspec Directory

Open the composer.json file. We configured composer to be able to autoload things from the src/ directory, but we haven't configured it to be able to autoload things from the spec/ directory. phpspec does not need any autoloading to be setup to find the spec files - it handles all of that itself. But if you want to put any other, non-spec, classes in this directory - like a matcher - then we do need to set up autoloading.

No problem: copy the autoload section, paste and change it to autoload-dev. Tell composer to expect the spec\\ namespace to live in the spec/ directory.

18 lines | composer.json
// ... lines 2 - 11
"autoload-dev": {
"psr-4": {
"spec\\": "spec/"

To make Composer rebuild its autoloader, run:

composer dump-autoload

Cool! Try phpspec again:

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

Much better! It does see it, and now we get:

Custom matcher spec\Matcher\BeGreaterMatcher must implement... some Matcher interface.

Apparently all matcher classes need to implement this interface. That makes sense! Let's do that next - and finish this!