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We're missing the isCarnivorous() method on Dinosaur. It will be a really simple method, but because it will let me show you a very special match - the ObjectStateMatcher - we're going to write a couple of examples for it.

Find DinosaurSpec and add the first new example: it_should_be_herbivore_by_default(). This example is meant to show that if we create a new Dinosaur() without passing the isCarnivorous argument, it should default to an herbivore. Pay careful attention to the language I'm about to use. Behind the scenes, because we haven't controlled the constructor arguments, we know that phpspec will create a Dinosaur() without any constructor arguments. So I'm going to say $this->shouldNotBeCarnivorous().

... lines 1 - 9
class DinosaurSpec extends ObjectBehavior
{
... lines 12 - 79
function it_should_be_herbivore_by_default()
{
$this->shouldNotBeCarnivorous();
}
... lines 84 - 90
}

That is not a built-in matcher... right? I mean, that's super specific language, and PhpStorm definitely did not autocomplete that for me. Well... surprise! That is a real matcher! Say hello to the ObjectStateMatcher! It's dynamic: whenever you say shouldBeSOMETHING or shouldNotBeSOMETHING(), the ObjectStateMatcher is activated. It parses out that "SOMETHING" part - for us the word Carnivorous - looks for a method called isCarnivorous(), and then checks that it equals true or, in our case, false, because we're using should not.

Let's write one more example before we see this. How about: it_should_allow_to_check_if_dinosaur_is_carnivorous(). Inside, use $this->beConstructedWith(). Remember, the Dinosaur class's constructor allows us to control the $isCarnivorous value via the second argument. So, we'll pass 'Velociraptor' and true. Then we can say $this->shouldBeCarnivorous(). That's the same thing as above, but without the "not".

... lines 1 - 84
function it_should_allow_to_check_if_dinosaur_is_carnivorous()
{
$this->beConstructedWith('Velociraptor', true);
$this->shouldBeCarnivorous();
}
... lines 91 - 92

Let's check it out!

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

Woh! The error from our two new examples is:

method [array:2] not found

Um... cool... so what the heck does that mean? It's not a great error. But, the question at the bottom tells us what is really going on:

Do you want me to create Dinosaur::isCarnivorous() for you?

This is really cool! When we say shouldBeCarnivorous(), the ObjectStateMatcher says:

Hey! You're describing that your object "should be carnivorous". To figure that out, your class probably needs an isCarnivorous() method! So, let's create that thing!

Choose yes to generate it. phpspec re-runs and does fail - something about the ObjectStateMatcher expecting a boolean, but null given. That's because our new method is empty! Go find it, then return $this->isCarnivorous and add the bool return type.

... lines 1 - 4
class Dinosaur
{
... lines 7 - 51
public function isCarnivorous(): bool
{
return $this->isCarnivorous;
}
}

Find your terminal and run phpspec!

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

Sweet! Everything passes! Which includes both new examples inside DinosaurSpec and the original example in EnclosureSpec because Enclosure can now use the new isCarnivorous() method.

ObjectStateMatcher with "shouldHave"

Now that our tests are green, we get to think about any refactoring we might want to do. Here's one piece I don't love: this logic for comparing whether or not the diet of two Dinosaurs is the same - it's just not super clear.

So, it might be nice to have a method on the Dinosaur class called hasSameDietAs(): we pass it a Dinosaur and it returns a boolean.

So... cool! Let's add an example for this: it_should_allow_to_check_if_two_dinosaurs_have_same_diet. And, check out the language $this->shouldHaveSameDietAs(new Dinosaur()).

... lines 1 - 9
class DinosaurSpec extends ObjectBehavior
{
... lines 12 - 91
function it_should_allow_to_check_if_two_dinosaurs_have_same_diet()
{
$this->shouldHaveSameDietAs(new Dinosaur());
}
}

Two important things here. First, the $this object will be a Dinosaur object that's created with no constructor args - so it will be a veggiesaurus. And so, it should have the same diet as a new Dinosaur(), which will also be non-carnivorous.

Second, see this language - shouldHaveSameDietAs()? That language will also be handled by the ObjectStateMatcher. Yep, when you say shouldBeSomething, it looks for an isSomething() method. And if you say shouldHaveSomething(), it looks for a hasSomething() method.

One of the problems I originally had with the ObjectStateMatcher was that I was thinking about it backwards. I was thinking:

Hey! I want to have a method called isCarnivorous().

Then, I would try to figure out the correct matcher method to use - like shouldBeCarnivorous() - so that it would look for this method. But really, we need to think about it the other direction: I shouldn't care what the method name will be called in Dinosaur. Nope, I can ignore that and focus on using natural language in my example: $this->shouldBeCarnivorous() and down here $this->shouldHaveSameDietAs(). Use natural language, and then... don't even think about the method name! Just run phpspec - it'll tell you:

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

There it is! hasSameDietAs(). Generate that, then go find it. This method will return a bool, the argument will be a Dinosaur object and we can return $dinosaur->isCarnivorous() === $this->isCarnivorous().

... lines 1 - 4
class Dinosaur
{
... lines 7 - 56
public function hasSameDietAs(Dinosaur $dinosaur): bool
{
return $dinosaur->isCarnivorous() === $this->isCarnivorous();
}
}

Let's try it!

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

We are green! Let's take that as a sign that it's safe to do a bit of refactoring inside Enclosure. Remove all this complicated stuff and, at the end, just say: || $dinosaur->hasSameDietAs($this->dinosaurs[0]).

... lines 1 - 6
class Enclosure
{
... lines 9 - 25
private function canAddDinosaur(Dinosaur $dinosaur): bool
{
return count($this->dinosaurs) === 0 || $dinosaur->hasSameDietAs($this->dinosaurs[0]);
}
}

Run phpspec one more time:

./vendor/bin/phpspec run

Got it! Next, let's talk a bit more about testing exceptions and finally add some Security to our dino park.

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