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04.

Magical Flex Recipes

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I have a secret. When our project was created, it wasn't 15 files. It was... one file. If you peeked inside the code for the symfony new command, you'd discover that it's a shortcut for just two things. First, it clones a repository called symfony/skeleton... which is just one file if you ignore the license. And second, it runs composer install.

That's it! But hold on, if that's the case, where in the world did all these other files come from? Like, the stuff in bin/, config/ and src/? The answer starts with a special package inside our composer.json file called symfony/flex. Flex is a Composer plugin that adds two superpowers to Composer: aliases and recipes.

Flex Aliases

Aliases are simple. To add a new package to your app - which we'll do in a minute - you run composer require then the name of the package like symfony/http-client. Flex gives the most important packages in the Symfony ecosystem a shorter name, called an alias. For example, symfony/http-client has an alias called http-client. Yup, we could run composer require http-client and Flex would translate that to the final package name. It's just a shortcut when adding packages.

If you want to see all the available aliases, go to a repository called symfony/recipes... then click the link to RECIPES.md. On the right, there they are!

The Recipes System

The second superpower that Symfony Flex adds to Composer is recipes. These are fascinating. When you add a new package, it may have a recipe, which is basically a set of files that will be added to your project. And it turns out that every file that we started with - in bin/, config/, public/ - these all came from the recipes of the packages that were originally installed.

For example, symfony/framework-bundle is the "core" package of the Symfony Framework. You can check out its recipe by going to the symfony/recipes repository and navigating to symfony, framework-bundle, then the latest version. Boom! Check out config/packages/: most of the stuff we started with came from this recipe!

Another way to see the recipes is at your command line. Run:

composer recipes

Apparently the recipes of four different packages were installed. And we could get info about any of these by adding its name to the end of the command.

Anyway, recipes are amazing because we can install a package and instantly get any files we need. Instead of fussing around with configuration, we get right to work.

Installing PHP CS Fixer

Let's try this out: let's add a new package called PHP-CS-Fixer that will give us an executable file to fix the styling of our code. For example, in src/Controller/MainController.php, if you follow PHP coding standards, the curly brace should live on the next line after a function. If we did something like this, our file now violates those standards. That wouldn't hurt anything, but you know, we want to keep our code looking clean. And PHP-CS-Fixer can help us do that.

To install it, run:

composer require cs-fixer-shim

And yes, this is an alias. On top, the true package is php-cs-fixer/shim.

Did this package come with a recipe? It did! The Configuring php-cs-fixer/shim tells us that. But, we can also see it by running:

git status

The fact that composer.json and composer.lock are modified is 100% normal Composer behavior. You can see that composer.json has the new library under the require key. But every other modified or new file is thanks to the package's recipe.

Investigating the Recipe

Let's investigate these! Open up .gitignore. Cool! At the bottom, it added two new entries for two common files that you want to ignore when you use PHP CS fixer. The recipe also added a new .php-cs-fixer.dist.php file. This is CS Fixer's configuration file. And check it out! It's pre-built to work for our Symfony app. It tells it to fix all files in the current directory, but ignore the var/ directory because that's where Symfony stores its cache files. It also tells it to use a ruleset called Symfony. That means that we want our code style to match Symfony's style. The point is: instead of us wasting time hunting down this default config... we just get it!

The last modified file is symfony.lock. This keeps track of which recipes we have installed and at what version. And yes, we are going to commit all these files to our repository.

Using PHP-CS-Fixer

Now that we've installed the package, let's use it. Do that by running:

./vendor/bin/php-cs-fixer

That'll show all the available commands. The one we want is called fix. Try it:

./vendor/bin/php-cs-fixer fix

And... yes! It found the violation in MainController.php! When we go to that file... yea! It moved my curly brace from the end of the line back down to the next line. That's awesome.

Next up, let's meet and install one of my favorite libraries in all of PHP: the Twig templating engine.