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Functions, Filters and Debugging with dump

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Just like PHP or JavaScript, Twig has functions that can be used once we're inside either a say something or do something Twig delimiter. To see the built-in functions, once again check out the bottom of the Twig Documentation page. In your application - especially if you're using Twig inside something like Symfony or Drupal - you may have even more functions available to you. Fortunately, the syntax to use a function is always the same: just check out your project's documentation to see what other goodies you have.

Using a Function

Let's check out the random() function... which gives us, shockingly, a random number! If we want to print out that random number, we can do it using the "say something" syntax:

{# templates/homepage.twig #}

<div class="price">
    {{ random() }}

You can also use a function inside a "do something" tag, like checking to see if the random number is less than 5:

{# templates/homepage.twig #}

<div class="price">
    {{ random() }}

    {# random(10) returns a number from 0 to 10 #}
    {% if random(10) < 5 %}
        Really cheap!
    {% endif %}

This works exactly the same, except that it lives inside the if statement. Like we've done here, a function can have zero or many arguments, each separated by a comma.

Using Filters

This is nice, but Twig has something even cooler: filters! Like with everything, you can find a filter list in the Twig Documentation, though you may have even more in your project. Let's check out the upper filter. We can use the upper filter to uppercase each product by placing a pipe (|) to the right of the variable and using the filter:

{# ... #}
<h2>{{ product|upper }}</h2>

This works just like a function, except with a different syntax. Whatever you have to the left of the pipe is passed to the filter, which in this example, upper-cases everything.

Heck, you can use as many filters as you want!

{# ... #}
<h2>{{ product|upper|reverse }}</h2>

Now we're upper-casing the name and then reversing the text.

Using Functions, Filters and Math

Filters can be used after functions too. Instead of printing out the random number, let's divide it by 100 to get a decimal, then use the number_format to show only one decimal place:

{{ (random() / 100)|number_format(1) }}

Getting the Length of a Collection

In fact, functions and filters can be used anywhere. Let's use the length filter to print a message if there are no penguin products for sale:

{% if products|length == 0 %}
    <div class="alert alert-error span12">
        It looks like we're out of really awesome-looking penguin clothes :/.
{% endif %}

This filter takes an array or collection to the left and transforms it into a number, which represents the number of items in the collection. We can use this to see if there are no products. I'll temporarily pass in zero so we can check this out.

Filters and Arguments using "date"

Just like functions, sometimes a filter has one or more arguments. A really common filter is date. This takes a date string or PHP DateTime object and changes it into a string. We can go to date() to look up the letters used in the date format. To try this out, we can just hardcode a string to start:

{# templates/homepage.twig #}

<div class="sale-ends-at">
    {{ 'tomorrow noon'|date('D M jS ga') }}

The "tomorrow noon" part is just a valid input to PHP's strtotime() function, which accepts all sorts of interesting strings as valid dates. The Twig date filter takes that string and renders it in the new format that we want. Of course, we can also send a variable through the date filter. Let's pass in a saleEndsAt variable into the template and render it the same way:

// index.php
// ...

echo $twig->render('homepage.twig', array(
    // ...
    'saleEndsAt' => new \DateTime('+1 month')
{# templates/homepage.twig #}

<div class="sale-ends-at">
    {{ saleEndsAt|date('D M jS ga') }}

We can even use the date filter to print out the current year. For the value to the left of the filter, I'll use now. I'll use the Y string to print out the 4-digit year. Sweet!

{{ 'now'|date('Y') }}

Use functions and especially filters to do cool stuff in Twig, and look at the documentation for each to see if what you're using has any arguments.

The dump Function for Debugging

Before we move on, let's talk about the dump() function. If you don't know what a variable looks like, use the dump() function to see its details:

{{ dump(products) }}

Even better, use the dump() function with no arguments to see all the variables that you have access to:

{{ dump() }}

With this function, there's not much you won't be able to do!

We experimented a lot in this section. I'll use the {# syntax to comment out some of the things we've done so that our page makes a bit more sense.

To clean things up, we removed the upper and reverse filters, the entire spot where we print the random numbers, and the printing of the current year.