Flag of Ukraine
SymfonyCasts stands united with the people of Ukraine
This tutorial has a new version, check it out!

OneToMany: The Inverse Side of a Relationship

Keep on Learning!

If you liked what you've learned so far, dive in!
Subscribe to get access to this tutorial plus
video, code and script downloads.

Start your All-Access Pass
Buy just this tutorial for $12.00

OneToMany: The Inverse Side of a Relationship

Earlier, we gave every Event an owner. This was our first Doctrine relationship: a ManyToOne from Event to User.

This lets us do things like call $event->getOwner(). Let’s use this to print the owner of an Event:

{# src/Yoda/EventBundle/Resources/views/Event/show.html.twig #}
{# ... #}

{{ entity.owner.username }}

But what about the opposite direction? Can we start with a $user object and call getEvents() to get all the Event objects the User has created?

Trying User::getEvents()

Open up the play script we made in episode one to test this out. Clear out all the code below the setup, then query for a User object and call getEvents() on it:

// play.php
// ...
// all our setup is done!!!!!!

$em = $container->get('doctrine')->getManager();

$user = $em
    ->findOneBy(array('username' => 'wayne'))

foreach ($user->getEvents() as $event) {

Now run the script:

php play.php

It blows up!

Call to undefined method YodaUserBundleEntityUser::getEvents()

This shouldn’t surprise us. The User object is a plain PHP object and we’ve never added a getEvents method to it.

Setting up User::getEvents()

We can do this, and it’s not hard, but it can be tricky to understand. It involves 3 steps.

Step 1: Add the OneToMany annotation

Start by adding an events property to User. Give it a OneToMany annotation:

// src/Yoda/UserBundle/Entity/User.php
// ...

 * @ORM\OneToMany(targetEntity="Yoda\EventBundle\Entity\Event", mappedBy="owner")
protected $events;

This looks just like the ManyToOne annotation we used inside Event, except for the extra mappedBy property, which tells Doctrine which property inside Event this maps to.

Step 2: Add inversedBy to ManyToOne

Second, now that we have the OneToMany, you also need to go to Event and add an inversedBy option pointing back to the events property on User:

// src/Yoda/EventBundle/Entity/Event.php
// ...

 * @ORM\ManyToOne(
 *      targetEntity="Yoda\UserBundle\Entity\User",
 *      inversedBy="events"
 * )
 * @ORM\JoinColumn(onDelete="CASCADE")
protected $owner;

I broke this onto multiple lines only to make things more readable.

Step 3: Initializing the ArrayCollection

Finally, in User, create a __construct method and set the events property to a special ArrayCollection object:

// src/Yoda/UserBundle/Entity/User.php
// ...
use Doctrine\Common\Collections\ArrayCollection;

public function __construct()
    $this->events = new ArrayCollection();

In a perfect world, the events property would just be an array of Event objects. But for Doctrine to work its magic, we need it to be an ArrayCollection object instead. But no worries, this object looks and feels just like an array, so just think of it like one.

Complete things by adding the getter and setter for the the events property:

// src/Yoda/UserBundle/Entity/User.php
// ..

public function getEvents()
    return $this->events;

public function setEvents(ArrayCollection $events)
    $this->events = $events;

Now try the play script:

php play.php

It works! And we see both event names, since wayne owns both of them.

Behind the scenes, Doctrine automatically queries for the two event objects owned by this wayne dude and puts them on the events property.

Owning Versus Inverse Side

Notice that we didn’t have to make any database schema changes for this to work. That’s really important. because adding this side of the relationship is purely for convenience. Our database already has all the information it needs to link Users and Events.

The OneToMany side of a relationship is always optional, and called the “inverse” side. If you need the convenience, add it. If you don’t, don’t bother with it.

The ManyToOne side of the relationship is where the foreign key actually lives in the database, and it’s known as the “owning” side. You’ll always need to specify the owning side of a relationship.

Caution: Don’t “set” the Inverse Side

The inverse side is special for another important reason. If we called setEvents() on a User and saved, the new events would be ignored. Only the “owning” side of the relationship is used when saving.

For example, in createAction of EventController, we’re currently calling setOwner on Event:

// src/Yoda/EventBundle/Controller/EventController.php
// ...

// this works

This is perfect because owner, coincidentally, is the owning side of the relationship. In a ManyToOne and OneToMany association, the owning side is always the singular side. We are talking about one owner, so it’s the owning side.

If instead we decided to call setEvents() on the User, we’d be setting the inverse side, and Doctrine would completely ignore it:

// src/Yoda/EventBundle/Controller/EventController.php
// ...

// this does nothing
// if we *only* had this part, the relationship would not save
// $events = $this->getUser()->getEvents();
// $events[] = $entity;
// $this->getUser()->setEvents($events);

In fact, let’s just remove setEvents from User, so that nobody calls this method on accident:

// src/Yoda/UserBundle/Entity/User.php
// ..

public function getEvents()
    return $this->events;

// setEvents() has been removed

The problem of not being able to set the relationship from both sides can be particularly tricky when working with a form that embeds many sub-forms. If you run into this, check out the cookbook entry on the topic at symfony.com. Also check out the reference manual for the collection form type.

Leave a comment!

What PHP libraries does this tutorial use?

// composer.json
    "require": {
        "php": ">=5.3.3",
        "symfony/symfony": "~2.4", // v2.4.2
        "doctrine/orm": "~2.2,>=2.2.3", // v2.4.2
        "doctrine/doctrine-bundle": "~1.2", // v1.2.0
        "twig/extensions": "~1.0", // v1.0.1
        "symfony/assetic-bundle": "~2.3", // v2.3.0
        "symfony/swiftmailer-bundle": "~2.3", // v2.3.5
        "symfony/monolog-bundle": "~2.4", // v2.5.0
        "sensio/distribution-bundle": "~2.3", // v2.3.4
        "sensio/framework-extra-bundle": "~3.0", // v3.0.0
        "sensio/generator-bundle": "~2.3", // v2.3.4
        "incenteev/composer-parameter-handler": "~2.0", // v2.1.0
        "doctrine/doctrine-fixtures-bundle": "~2.2.0", // v2.2.0
        "ircmaxell/password-compat": "~1.0.3", // 1.0.3
        "phpunit/phpunit": "~4.1", // 4.1.0
        "stof/doctrine-extensions-bundle": "~1.1.0" // v1.1.0