Secrets Management Setup

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My favorite new feature in Symfony 4.4 and 5 - other than the fact that Messenger and Mailer are now stable - is probably the new secrets management system, which is as cool as it sounds.

Secrets?

Here's the deal: every app has a set of config values that need to be different from machine to machine, like different on my local machine versus production. In Symfony, we store these as environment variables.

One example is MAILER_DSN:

62 lines .env
... lines 1 - 38
###> symfony/mailer ###
MAILER_DSN=null://null
# in Symfony 4.4 and higher, the syntax is
# MAILER_DSN=null://default
###
... lines 44 - 62

While developing, I want to use the null transport to avoid sending real emails. But on production, this value will be different, maybe pointing to my SendGrid account.

We reference environment variables with a special syntax - this one is in config/packages/mailer.yaml: %env()% with the variable name inside: MAILER_DSN:

framework:
mailer:
dsn: '%env(MAILER_DSN)%'

If you look at the full list of environment variables, you'll notice that there are two types: sensitive and non-sensitive variables.

For example, MAILER_DSN is a "sensitive" variable because the production value probably contains a username & password or API key: something that, if someone got access to it, would allow them to use our account. So, it's not something that we want to commit to our project.

But other values are not sensitive, like WKHTMLTOPDF_PATH:

62 lines .env
... lines 1 - 44
###> knplabs/knp-snappy-bundle ###
WKHTMLTOPDF_PATH=/usr/local/bin/wkhtmltopdf
WKHTMLTOIMAGE_PATH=/usr/local/bin/wkhtmltoimage
###
... lines 49 - 62

This might need to be different on production, but the value is not sensitive: we don't need to keep it a secret. We could actually commit its production value somewhere in our app to make deployment easier if we wanted to.

So... why are we talking about this? Because, these sensitive, or "secret" environment variables make life tricky. When we deploy, we need to somehow set the MAILER_DSN variable to its secret production value, either as a real environment variable or probably by creating a .env.local file. Doing that safely can be tricky: do you store the secret production value in a config file in this repository or in some deploy script? You can, but then it's not very secure: the less people that can see your secrets - even people on your team - the better.

The Vault Concept

One general solution to this problem is something called a vault. The basic idea is simple: you encrypt your secrets - like the production value for MAILER_DSN - and then store the encrypted value. The "place" where the encrypted secrets are stored is called the "vault". The secrets inside can only be read if you have the decryption password or "private key".

This makes life easier because now your secrets can safely be stored in this "vault", which can just be a set of files on your filesystem or even a cloud vault service. Then, when you deploy, the only "secret" that you need to have available is the password or private key. Some vaults also allow other ways to authenticate.

Introducing Symfony's Secrets "Vault"

None of this "vault" stuff has anything to do with Symfony: it's just a cool concept and there are various services & projects that support the idea - the most famous being HashiCorp's Vault.

But, in Symfony 4.4, a new secrets system was added to let us do all this cool stuff out-of-the-box.

Here's the goal: instead of having MAILER_DSN as an environment variable, we're going to move this to be an "encrypted secret".

Dumping an Env Var for Debugging

To see how this all works clearly, let's add some debugging code to dump the MAILER_DSN value. Open config/services.yaml and add a new bind - $mailerDsn set to %env(MAILER_DSN)% - so we can use this as an argument somewhere:

... lines 1 - 11
services:
# default configuration for services in *this* file
_defaults:
... lines 15 - 17
# setup special, global autowiring rules
bind:
... lines 20 - 24
$mailerDsn: '%env(MAILER_DSN)%'
... lines 26 - 51

I forgot my closing quote... which Symfony will "gently" remind me in a minute.

Next, open src/Controller/ArticleController.php. In the homepage action, thanks to the bind, we can add a $mailerDsn argument. Dump that and die:

... lines 1 - 13
class ArticleController extends AbstractController
{
... lines 16 - 28
public function homepage(ArticleRepository $repository, $mailerDsn)
{
dump($mailerDsn);die;
... lines 32 - 36
}
... lines 38 - 64
}

Now, refresh the homepage. Booo. Let's go fix my missing quote in the YAML file. Refresh again and... perfect: the current value is null://null.

That's no surprise: that's the value in .env and we are not overriding it in .env.local:

62 lines .env
... lines 1 - 38
###> symfony/mailer ###
MAILER_DSN=null://null
... lines 41 - 62

Converting an Env Var to a Secret

Ok, as soon as you have an environment variable that you want to convert to a secret, you need to fully remove it as an environment variable: do not set it as an environment variable anywhere anymore. I'll remove MAILER_DSN from .env and if we were overriding it in .env.local, I would also remove it from there:

62 lines .env
... lines 1 - 38
###> symfony/mailer ###
# MAILER_DSN=null://null
... lines 41 - 62

Not surprisingly, when you refresh, we're greeted with a great big ugly error:

The environment variable is not found.

Bootstrapping the Secrets Vault

So how do we make MAILER_DSN an encrypted secret? With a fancy new console command:

php bin/console secrets:set MAILER_DSN

That will ask us for the value: I'll go copy null://null - you'll learn why I'm choosing that value in a minute - and paste it here. You don't see the pasted value because the command hides the input to be safe.

The Public/Encryption & Private/Decryption Keys

Hit enter and... awesome! Because this was the first time we added something to the secrets vault, Symfony needed to create the vault - and it did that automatically. What does that actually mean? It means that it created several new files in a config/secrets/dev directory.

Let's go check them out: config/secrets/dev. Ooooo.

To "create" the secrets vault, Symfony created two new files, which represent "keys": a private decrypt key and a public encrypt key. If you look inside, they're just fancy text files: they return a long key value.

The public encrypt file is something that is safe to commit to your repository. It's used to add, or "encrypt" a secret, but it can't read encrypted secrets. By committing it, other developers can add new secrets.

The private decrypt key - as its name suggests - is needed to decrypt and read secrets.

One set of Secrets per Environment

Now normally, the "decrypt" key is private and you would not commit it to your repository. However, as you may have noticed, Symfony maintains a different set of secrets per environment. The vault we created is for the dev environment only. In the next chapter, we'll create the vault for the prod environment.

Anyways, because secrets in the dev environment usually represent safe "defaults" that aren't terribly sensitive, it's ok to commit the private key for the dev environment. Plus, if you didn't commit it, other developers on your team wouldn't be able to run the app locally... because Symfony wouldn't be able to read the dev secrets.

Committing the dev Keys

Let's add these to git:

git status

Then git add config/secrets and also add .env:

git add config/secrets .env

This added all 4 files. The other two files store info about the secrets themselves: each secret will be stored in its own file and the "list" file just helps us get the full list of secrets that exist. Commit this:

git commit -m "setting up dev environment vault"

%env()% Automatically Looks for Secrets

And now I have a pleasant surprise: go over and refresh the homepage. It works! That's by design: the %env()% syntax is smart:

... lines 1 - 11
services:
# default configuration for services in *this* file
_defaults:
... lines 15 - 17
# setup special, global autowiring rules
bind:
... lines 20 - 24
$mailerDsn: '%env(MAILER_DSN)%'
... lines 26 - 51

It first looks for a MAILER_DSN environment variable. If it finds one, it uses it. If it does not, it then looks for a MAILER_DSN secret. That's why... it just works.

bin/console secrets:list

To get a list of all the encrypted secrets, you can run:

php bin/console secrets:list

Yep - just one right now. Add --reveal to see the values. By the way, this "reveal" only works because the decrypt file exists in our app.

Next: our app will not currently work in the prod environment because there is no prod vault and so no MAILER_DSN prod secret. Let's fix that and talk a bit about deployment.

Leave a comment!

What PHP libraries does this tutorial use?

// composer.json
{
    "require": {
        "php": "^7.3.0",
        "ext-iconv": "*",
        "antishov/doctrine-extensions-bundle": "^1.4", // v1.4.2
        "aws/aws-sdk-php": "^3.87", // 3.110.11
        "doctrine/doctrine-bundle": "^2.0", // 2.0.6
        "doctrine/doctrine-migrations-bundle": "^1.3|^2.0", // 2.1.2
        "doctrine/orm": "^2.5.11", // v2.7.2
        "easycorp/easy-log-handler": "^1.0", // v1.0.9
        "http-interop/http-factory-guzzle": "^1.0", // 1.0.0
        "knplabs/knp-markdown-bundle": "^1.7", // 1.8.1
        "knplabs/knp-paginator-bundle": "^5.0", // v5.0.0
        "knplabs/knp-snappy-bundle": "^1.6", // v1.7.0
        "knplabs/knp-time-bundle": "^1.8", // v1.11.0
        "league/flysystem-aws-s3-v3": "^1.0", // 1.0.23
        "league/flysystem-cached-adapter": "^1.0", // 1.0.9
        "league/html-to-markdown": "^4.8", // 4.8.2
        "liip/imagine-bundle": "^2.1", // 2.3.0
        "nexylan/slack-bundle": "^2.1", // v2.2.1
        "oneup/flysystem-bundle": "^3.0", // 3.3.0
        "php-http/guzzle6-adapter": "^2.0", // v2.0.1
        "sensio/framework-extra-bundle": "^5.1", // v5.5.3
        "symfony/asset": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/console": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/dotenv": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/flex": "^1.0", // v1.6.2
        "symfony/form": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/framework-bundle": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/mailer": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/messenger": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/monolog-bundle": "^3.5", // v3.5.0
        "symfony/security-bundle": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/sendgrid-mailer": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/serializer-pack": "^1.0", // v1.0.2
        "symfony/twig-bundle": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/twig-pack": "^1.0", // v1.0.0
        "symfony/validator": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/webpack-encore-bundle": "^1.4", // v1.7.2
        "symfony/yaml": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "twig/cssinliner-extra": "^2.12", // v2.12.0
        "twig/extensions": "^1.5", // v1.5.4
        "twig/inky-extra": "^2.12" // v2.12.0
    },
    "require-dev": {
        "doctrine/doctrine-fixtures-bundle": "^3.0", // 3.3.0
        "fzaninotto/faker": "^1.7", // v1.8.0
        "symfony/browser-kit": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/debug-bundle": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/maker-bundle": "^1.0", // v1.14.3
        "symfony/phpunit-bridge": "5.0.*", // v5.0.2
        "symfony/profiler-pack": "^1.0", // v1.0.4
        "symfony/var-dumper": "5.0.*" // v5.0.2
    }
}