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Operations

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Let's get to work customizing our API. A RESTful API is all about resources. We have one resource - our CheeseListing - and, by default, API Platform generated 5 endpoints for it. These are called "operations".

Collection and Item Operations

Operations are divided into two categories. First, "collection" operations. These are the URLs that don't include {id} and where the "resource" you're operating on is technically the "collection of cheese listings". For example, you're "getting" the collection or you're "adding" to the collection with POST.

And second - "item" operations. These are the URLs that do have the {id} part, when you're "operating" on a single cheese listing resource.

The first thing we can customize is which operations we actually want! Above CheeseListing, inside the annotation, add collectionOperations={} with "get" and "post" inside. Then itemOperations with {"get", "put", "delete"}.

Tip

Starting in ApiPlatform 2.5, there is also a patch operation. It works like the put operation and is recommended over put when you only want to change some fields (which is most of the time). To allow the patch operation, add this config:

// config/packages/api_platform.yaml
api_platform:
    patch_formats:
        json: ['application/merge-patch+json']

Then, when making a PATCH request, set the Content-Type header to application/merge-patch+json. Check the interactive documentation, you'll see an example there ;).

... lines 1 - 7
/**
* @ApiResource(
* collectionOperations={"get", "post"},
* itemOperations={"get", "put", "delete"}
* )
... line 13
*/
class CheeseListing
... lines 16 - 116

A lot of mastering API Platform comes down to learning about what options you can pass inside this annotation. This is basically the default configuration: we want all five operations. So not surprisingly, when we refresh, we see absolutely no changes. But what if we don't want to allow users to delete a cheese listing? Maybe instead, in the future, we'll add a way to "archive" them. Remove "delete".

... lines 1 - 7
/**
* @ApiResource(
... line 10
* itemOperations={"get", "put"}
* )
... line 13
*/
... lines 15 - 116

As soon as we do that... boom! It's gone from our documentation. Simple, right? Yep! But a bunch of cool things just happened. Remember that, behind the scenes, the Swagger UI is built off of an Open API spec document, which you can see at /api/docs.json. The reason the "delete" endpoint disappeared from Swagger is that it disappeared from here. API Platform is keeping our "spec" document up to date. If you looked at the JSON-LD spec doc, you'd see the same thing.

And of course, it also completely removed the endpoint - you can see that by running:

php bin/console debug:router

Yep, just GET, POST, GET and PUT.

Customizing the Resource URL (shortName)

Hmm, now that I'm looking at this, I don't love the cheese_listings part of the URLs... API Platform generates this from the class name. And really, in an API, you shouldn't obsess about how your URLs look - it's just not important, especially - as you'll see - when your API responses include links to other resources. But... we can control this.

Flip back over and add another option: shortName set to cheeses.

... lines 1 - 7
/**
* @ApiResource(
... lines 10 - 11
* shortName="cheeses"
... lines 13 - 14
*/
... lines 16 - 117

Now run debug:router again:

php bin/console debug:router

Hey! /api/cheeses! Much better! And we see the same thing now on our API docs.

Customizing Operation Route Details

Ok: so we can control which operations we want on a resource. And later, we'll learn how to add custom operations. But we can also control quite a lot about the individual operations.

We know that each operation generates a route, and API Platform gives you full control over how that route looks. Check it out: break itemOperations onto multiple lines. Then, instead of just saying "get", we can say "get"={} and pass this extra configuration.

Try "path"= set to, I don't know, "/i❤️️cheeses/{id}".

... lines 1 - 7
/**
* @ApiResource(
... line 10
* itemOperations={
* "get"={"path"="/i❤️cheeses/{id}"},
* "put"
* },
... line 15
* )
... line 17
*/
... lines 19 - 120

Go check out the docs! Ha! That works! What else can you put here? Quite a lot! To start, anything that can be defined on a route, can be added here - like method, hosts, etc.

What else? Well, along the way, we'll learn about other, API-Platform-specific stuff that you can put here, like access_control for security and ways to control the serialization process.

In fact, let's learn about that process right now! How does API Platform transform our CheeseListing object - with all these private properties - into the JSON that we've been seeing? And when we create a new CheeseListing, how is it converting our input JSON into a CheeseListing object?

Understanding the serialization process may be the most important piece to unlocking API Platform.

Leave a comment!

This tutorial works great for Symfony 5 and API Platform 2.5/2.6.

What PHP libraries does this tutorial use?

// composer.json
{
    "require": {
        "php": "^7.1.3",
        "ext-ctype": "*",
        "ext-iconv": "*",
        "api-platform/core": "^2.1", // v2.4.3
        "composer/package-versions-deprecated": "^1.11", // 1.11.99
        "doctrine/annotations": "^1.0", // 1.10.2
        "doctrine/doctrine-bundle": "^1.6", // 1.11.2
        "doctrine/doctrine-migrations-bundle": "^2.0", // v2.0.0
        "doctrine/orm": "^2.4.5", // v2.7.2
        "nelmio/cors-bundle": "^1.5", // 1.5.5
        "nesbot/carbon": "^2.17", // 2.19.2
        "phpdocumentor/reflection-docblock": "^3.0 || ^4.0", // 4.3.1
        "symfony/asset": "4.2.*|4.3.*|4.4.*", // v4.3.11
        "symfony/console": "4.2.*", // v4.2.12
        "symfony/dotenv": "4.2.*", // v4.2.12
        "symfony/expression-language": "4.2.*|4.3.*|4.4.*", // v4.3.11
        "symfony/flex": "^1.1", // v1.17.6
        "symfony/framework-bundle": "4.2.*", // v4.2.12
        "symfony/security-bundle": "4.2.*|4.3.*", // v4.3.3
        "symfony/twig-bundle": "4.2.*|4.3.*", // v4.2.12
        "symfony/validator": "4.2.*|4.3.*", // v4.3.11
        "symfony/yaml": "4.2.*" // v4.2.12
    },
    "require-dev": {
        "symfony/maker-bundle": "^1.11", // v1.11.6
        "symfony/stopwatch": "4.2.*|4.3.*", // v4.2.9
        "symfony/web-profiler-bundle": "4.2.*|4.3.*" // v4.2.9
    }
}