The Serializer

Keep on Learning!

If you liked what you've learned so far, dive in!
Subscribe to get access to this tutorial plus
video, code and script downloads.

Start your All-Access Pass
Buy just this tutorial for $12.00

With a Subscription, click any sentence in the script to jump to that part of the video!

Login Subscribe

Google for Symfony serializer and find a page called The Serializer Component.

API Platform is built on top of the Symfony components. And the entire process of how it turns our CheeseListing object into JSON... and JSON back into a CheeseListing object, is done by Symfony's Serializer! If we understand how it works, we're in business!

And, at least on the surface, it's beautifully simple. Check out the diagram that shows how it works. Going from an object to JSON is called serialization, and from JSON back into an object called deserialization. To do that, internally, it goes through a process called normalizing: it first takes your object and turns it into an array. And then it's encoded into JSON or whatever format.

How Objects are Turned into Raw Data

There are actually a bunch of different "normalizer" classes that help with this job - like one that's really good at converting DateTime objects to a string and back. But the main class - the one at the heart of this process - is called the ObjectNormalizer. Behind the scenes, it uses another Symfony component called PropertyAccess, which has one superpower: if you give it a property name, like title, it's really good at finding and using getter and setter methods to access that property.

In other words, when API platform tries to "normalize" an object into an array, it uses the getter and setter methods to do that!

For example, it sees that there's a getId() method, and so, it turns that into an id key on the array... and eventually in the JSON. It does the same thing for getTitle() - that becomes title. It's just that simple!

When we send data, it does the same thing! Because we have a setTitle() method, we can send JSON with a title key. The normalizer will take the value we're sending, call setTitle() and pass it!

It's a simple, but neat way to allow your API clients to interact with your object, your API resource, using its getter and setter methods. By the way, the PropertyAccess component also supports public properties, hassers, issers, adders, removers - basically a bunch of common method naming conventions in addition to getters and setters.

Adding a Custom "Field"

Anyways, now that we know how this works, we're super dangerous! Seriously! Right now, we're able to send a description field. Let's pretend that this property can contain HTML in the database. But most of our users don't really understand HTML and, instead, just type into a box with line breaks. Let's create a new, custom field called textDescription. If an API client sends a textDescription field, we'll convert the new lines into HTML breaks before saving it on the description property.

How can we create a totally new, custom input field for our resource? Find setDescription(), duplicate it, and name it setTextDescription(). Inside, say, $this->description = nl2br($description);. It's a silly example, but even forgetting about API Platform, this is good, boring, object-oriented coding: we've added a way to set the description if you want new lines to be converted to line breaks.

... lines 1 - 18
class CheeseListing
{
... lines 21 - 83
public function setTextDescription(string $description): self
{
$this->description = nl2br($description);
return $this;
}
... lines 90 - 125
}

But now, refresh, and open up the POST operation again. Woh! It says that we can still send a description field, but we can also pass textDescription! But if your try the GET operation... we still only get back description.

That makes sense! We added a setter method - which makes it possible to send this field - but we did not add a getter method. You can also see the new field described down in the models section.

Removing "description" as Input

But, we probably don't want to allow the user to send both description and textDescription. I mean, you could, but it's a little weird - if the client sent both, they would bump into each other and the last key would win because its setter method would be called last. So, let's remove setDescription().

Refresh now. I love it! To create or update a cheese listing, the client will send textDescription. But when they fetch the data, they'll always get back description. In fact, let's try it... with id 1. Open the PUT operation and set textDescription to something with a few line breaks. I only want to update this one field, so we can just remove the other fields. And... execute! 200 status code and... a description field with some line breaks!

By the way, the fact that our input fields don't match our output fields is totally ok. Consistency is super nice - and I'll show you soon how we can fix this inconsistency. But there's no rule that says your input data needs to match your output data.

Removing createdAt Input

Ok, what else can we do? Well, having a createdAt field on the output is great, but it probably doesn't make sense to allow the client to send this: the server should set it automatically.

No problem! Don't want the createdAt field to be allowed in the input? Find the setCreatedAt() method and remove it. To auto-set it, it's back to good, old-fashioned object-oriented programming. Add public function __construct() and, inside, $this->createdAt = new \DateTimeImmutable().

... lines 1 - 54
public function __construct()
{
$this->createdAt = new \DateTimeImmutable();
}
... lines 59 - 118

Go refresh the docs. Yep, it's gone here... but when we try the GET operation, it is still in the output.

Adding a Custom Date Field

We're on a roll! So let's customize one more thing! Let's say that, in addition to the createdAt field - which is in this ugly, but standard format - we also want to return the date as a string - something like 5 minutes ago or 1 month ago.

To help us do that, find your terminal and run:

composer require nesbot/carbon

This is a handy DateTime utility that can easily give us that string. Oh, while this is installing, I'll go back to the top of my entity and remove the custom path on the get operation. That's a cool example... but let's not make our API weird for no reason.

... lines 1 - 7
/**
* @ApiResource(
... line 10
* itemOperations={
* "get"={},
... line 13
* },
... line 15
* )
... line 17
*/
... lines 19 - 118

Yep, that looks better.

Back at the terminal.... done! In CheeseListing, find getCreatedAt(), go below it, and add public function getCreatedAtAgo() with a string return type. Then, return Carbon::instance($this->getCreatedAt())->diffForHumans().

... lines 1 - 106
public function getCreatedAtAgo(): string
{
return Carbon::instance($this->getCreatedAt())->diffForHumans();
}
... lines 111 - 124

You know the drill: just by adding a getter, when we refresh... and look at the model, we have a new createdAtAgo - readonly field! And, by the way, it also knows that description is readonly because it has no setter.

Scroll up and try the GET collection operation. And... cool: createdAt and createdAtAgo.

As nice as it is to control things by simply tweaking your getter and setter methods, it's not ideal. For example, to prevent an API client from setting the createdAt field, we had to remove the setCreatedAt() method. But, what if, somewhere in my app - like a command that imports legacy cheese listings - we do need to manually set the createdAt date? Let's learn how to control this with serialization groups.

Leave a comment!

This tutorial works great for Symfony 5 and API Platform 2.5.

What PHP libraries does this tutorial use?

// composer.json
{
    "require": {
        "php": "^7.1.3",
        "ext-ctype": "*",
        "ext-iconv": "*",
        "api-platform/api-pack": "^1.2", // v1.2.0
        "doctrine/doctrine-migrations-bundle": "^2.0", // v2.0.0
        "nesbot/carbon": "^2.17", // 2.19.2
        "symfony/console": "4.2.*", // v4.2.9
        "symfony/dotenv": "4.2.*", // v4.2.9
        "symfony/flex": "^1.1", // v1.2.7
        "symfony/framework-bundle": "4.2.*", // v4.2.9
        "symfony/yaml": "4.2.*" // v4.2.9
    },
    "require-dev": {
        "symfony/maker-bundle": "^1.11", // v1.11.6
        "symfony/profiler-pack": "^1.0" // v1.0.4
    }
}