Advanced Handler Config: Handler Subscribers

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Open up DeleteImagePostHandler. The main thing that a message bus needs to know is the link between the DeleteImagePost message class and its handler. It needs to know that when we dispatch a DeleteImagePost object, it should call DeleteImagePostHandler.

How does Messenger know these two classes are connected? It knows because our handler implements MessageHandlerInterface - this "marks" it as a message handler - and because its __invoke() method is type-hinted with DeleteImagePost. If you follow these two rules - implement that interface & create an __invoke() method with an argument type-hinted with the message class - then... you're done!

Find your terminal and run:

php bin/console debug:messenger

Yep! This proves it: DeleteImagePost is handled by DeleteImagePostHandler.

Then... in config/services.yaml, we got a little bit fancier. By organizing each type of message - commands, events and queries - into different directories, we were able to add a tag to each service. This gives a bit more info to Messenger. It says:

Hey! I want you to make that normal connection between the DeleteImagePost message class and DeleteImagePostHandler... but I only want you to tell the "command bus" about that connection... because that's the only bus I'm going to dispatch that message into.

We also see this on debug:messenger: the command bus is aware of the DeleteImagePost and DeleteImagePostHandler connection and the other two buses know about other message and message handler links. Oh, and as a reminder, if this whole "tags" thing confuses you... skip it. It organizes things a bit more, but you can just as effectively have one bus that handles everything.

Anyways, this system is quick to use but there are a few things that you can't change. For example, the method in your handler must be called __invoke()... that's just what Symfony looks for. And because a class can only have one method named __invoke(), this means that you can't have a single handler that handles multiple different message classes. I don't usually like to do this anyways, I prefer one message class per handler... but it is a technical limitation.

MessageHandlerInterface

Now that we've reviewed all of that... it turns out that this is only part of the story. If we want to, we can take more control of how a message class is linked to its handler... including some extra config.

How? Instead of implementing MessageHandlerInterface, implement MessageSubscriberInterface.

... lines 1 - 9
use Symfony\Component\Messenger\Handler\MessageSubscriberInterface;
... lines 11 - 12
class DeleteImagePostHandler implements MessageSubscriberInterface
{
... lines 15 - 38
}

This is less of a huge change than it may seem. If you open up MessageSubscriberInterface, it extends MessageHandlerInterface. So, we're still effectively implementing the same interface... but now we're forced to have one new method: getHandledMessages().

At the bottom of my class, I'll go to Code -> Generate - or Command + N on a Mac - and select "Implement Methods".

As soon as we implement this interface, instead of magically looking for the __invoke() method and checking the type-hint on the argument for which message class this should handle, Symfony will call this method. Our job here? Tell it exactly which classes we handle, which method to call and... some other fun stuff!

... lines 1 - 12
class DeleteImagePostHandler implements MessageSubscriberInterface
{
... lines 15 - 34
public static function getHandledMessages(): iterable
{
// TODO: Implement getHandledMessages() method.
}
}

Message Handling Config

The easiest thing you can put here is yield DeleteImagePost::class. Don't over-think that yield... it's just syntax sugar. You could also return an array with a DeleteImagePost::class string inside.

... lines 1 - 12
class DeleteImagePostHandler implements MessageSubscriberInterface
{
... lines 15 - 34
public static function getHandledMessages(): iterable
{
yield DeleteImagePost::class;
}
}

What difference did that make? Go back and run debug:messenger.

php bin/console debug:messenger

And... it made absolutely no difference. With this super simple config, we've told Messenger that this class handles DeleteImagePost objects... and then Messenger still assumes that it should execute a method called __invoke().

But technically, this type-hint isn't needed anymore. Delete that, then re-run:

php bin/console debug:messenger

It still sees the connection between the message class and handler.

Controlling the Method & Handling Multiple Classes

Ok... but since we probably should use type-hints... this isn't that interesting yet. What else can we do?

Well, by assigning this to an array, we can add some config. For example, we can say 'method' => '__invoke'. Yep, we can now control which method Messenger will call. That's especially useful if you decide that you want to add another yield to handle a second message... and want Messenger to call a different method.

... lines 1 - 12
class DeleteImagePostHandler implements MessageSubscriberInterface
{
... lines 15 - 34
public static function getHandledMessages(): iterable
{
yield DeleteImagePost::class => [
'method' => '__invoke'
];
}
}

Handler Priority

What else can we put here? One option is priority - let's set it to... 10.

... lines 1 - 12
class DeleteImagePostHandler implements MessageSubscriberInterface
{
... lines 15 - 34
public static function getHandledMessages(): iterable
{
yield DeleteImagePost::class => [
'method' => '__invoke',
... lines 39 - 41
'priority' => 10,
];
}
}

This option is... much less interesting than it might look like at first. We talked earlier about priority transports: in config/packages/messenger.yaml we created two transport - async & async_priority_high - and we route different messages to each. We did this so that, when we run our worker, we can tell it to always read messages from async_priority_high first before reading messages from async. That makes async_priority_high a place for us to send "higher" priority messages.

The priority option here is... less powerful. If you send a message to a transport with a priority 0 and then you send another message to that same transport with priority 10, what do you think will happen? Which message will be handled first?

The answer: the first message that was sent - the one with the lower priority. Basically, Messenger will always read messages in a first-in-first-out basis: it will always read the oldest messages first. The priority does not influence this.

So... what does it do? Well, if DeleteImagePost had two handlers... and one had the default priority of zero and another had 10, the handler with priority 10 would be called first. That's not usually important, but could be if you had two event handlers and really needed them to happen in a certain order.

Next, let's talk about one more option you can pass here - the most powerful option. It's called from_transport and allows you to, sort of, send different "handlers" of a message to different transports so that each can be consumed independently.

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