Exchange Routing and Binding Keys

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Let's change this delay back to one second... so we're not waiting all day for our photos to be processed.

... lines 1 - 23
class ImagePostController extends AbstractController
{
... lines 26 - 40
public function create(Request $request, ValidatorInterface $validator, PhotoFileManager $photoManager, EntityManagerInterface $entityManager, MessageBusInterface $messageBus)
{
... lines 43 - 63
$envelope = new Envelope($message, [
new DelayStamp(1000)
]);
... lines 67 - 69
}
... lines 71 - 98
}

Simple Setup: 1 Fanout Exchange per Queue

In messenger.yaml, the messages sent to each transport - async and async_priority_high - need to ultimately be delivered into two different queues so that we can consume them independently. And... we've accomplished that!

But there are two different ways that we could have done this. First, remember that in AMQP, messages are sent to an exchange, not a queue. Right now, when a message is routed to the async transport, Messenger sends that to an exchange called messages. You don't see that config here only because messages is the default exchange name in Messenger.

When a message is routed to the async_priority_high transport, Messenger sends that to an exchange called messages_high_priority. Each transport always sends to exactly one exchange.

Then, each exchange routes every message to a single queue, like the messages exchange sends to a messages queue... and messages_high_priority sends to a messages_high queue. There is not a routing key on the binding: Messenger binds each exchange to one queue... but with no routing key. That's how a "fanout" exchange works: it doesn't care about routing keys... it just sends each message to every queue bound to it.

1 Direct Exchange to 2 Queues

So that's one way to to solve this problem. The other way involves having only a single exchange... but making it smart enough to send some messages to the messages queue and other messages to messages_high. We do that with smarter binding and routing keys... which we already saw with the delays exchange.

Configuring a Direct Exchange

Let's refactor our transports to use this "smarter" system. Under the async transport, add options, then exchange, and set name to messages. If we stopped here, this would change nothing: this is the default exchange name in Messenger.

framework:
messenger:
... lines 3 - 19
transports:
... line 21
async:
... lines 23 - 25
options:
... line 27
exchange:
name: messages
... lines 30 - 53

But now, add a type key set to direct. This does change things: the default value is fanout. Add one more key below this: default_publish_routing_key set to normal.

framework:
messenger:
... lines 3 - 19
transports:
... line 21
async:
... lines 23 - 25
options:
... line 27
exchange:
name: messages
type: direct
default_publish_routing_key: normal
... lines 32 - 53

I'll talk about that in a second. Next, add a queues section. Let's "bind" this exchange to a queue called messages_normal. But we won't stop there! Under this, add binding_keys set to [normal].

framework:
messenger:
... lines 3 - 19
transports:
... line 21
async:
... lines 23 - 25
options:
... line 27
exchange:
name: messages
type: direct
default_publish_routing_key: normal
... lines 32 - 33
queues:
messages_normal:
binding_keys: [normal]
... lines 37 - 53

That word normal could be any string. But it's no accident that this matches what we set for default_publish_routing_key.

Deleting all the Exchanges and Queues

Instead of talking a ton about what this will do... let's... see it in action! Click to delete a photo: that should send a message to the async transport. Oh, but the AJAX call explodes! Open up the profiler to see the error. Ah:

Server channel error: 406, message: PRECONDITION_FAILED - inequivalent arg 'type' for exchange 'messages': received 'direct' but current is 'fanout'

The problem is that we already have an exchange called messages , which is a fanout type... but now we're trying to use it as a direct exchange. AMQP is warning us that we're trying to do something crazy!

So let's start over. Now that we're doing things a new way, let's hit the reset button and allow Messenger to create everything new.

Find your terminal - I'll log out of MySQL - and stop your worker... otherwise it will keep trying to create your exchanges and queues with the old config.

Then move back to the RabbitMQ admin, delete the messages exchange... then the messages_high_priority exchange. And even though the queues won't look different, to be extra safe, let's delete both of them too.

So we're back to no queues and only the original exchanges that AMQP created - which we're not using anyways - and the delays exchange. We're starting from scratch!

Go back to our site, delete the second image and... it looks like it worked! Cool! Let's see what happened inside RabbitMQ! Yea! We have a new exchange called messages and it's a direct type. Inside, it has a single binding that says:

When a message is sent to this exchange with a routing key called normal, it will be delivered to the queue called messages_normal.

This was all set up thanks to the queues and binding_keys config. This tells Messenger:

I want you to create a queue called messages_normal. Also, make sure that there is a binding on the exchange that will route any messages with a routing key set to normal to this queue.

But... did Messenger send the message with that routing key? Until now, other than the delay stuff, Messenger has been delivering our messages to AMQP with no routing key. The default_publish_routing_key config changes that. It says:

Hey! Whenever a message is routed to the async transport, I want you to send it to the messages exchange with a routing key set to normal.

This all means that if we look at the queues... yep! We have a message_normal queue with one message waiting inside! We did it!

Next, let's repeat this for the other transport. Then, we'll learn how this gives us the flexibility to dynamically control where a message will be delivered at the moment we dispatch it.

Leave a comment!

  • 2019-11-29 Victor Bocharsky

    Hey Roman,

    Could you want this tutorial up to the 44 chapter, including 44? Here's where exactly we set auto_setup to false: https://symfonycasts.com/sc... . I suppose you will answer the question yourself after it. Or ping us again if it would be still fuzzy to you.

    Cheers!

  • 2019-11-29 Roman Andreev

    Do you think that it is a really good way to initialize all settings kinda "side-effect" style? I think it is the wrong approach for a production server. Instead using the auto_setup option in the messenger component we have to configure all the things manually. It would be cool if you explain how to configure it by yourself in the Rabbit. Or at least just mention that it is totally not a good idea to use the auto_setup option in production.